Shanghai in Brief

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GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION

Shanghai, situated at 31.14'' north latitude and 121.29'' east longitude. is China's largest city. It is in the middle of China's east coastline and a gate to the Changjiang River valley, with a very favorable geographical location.


AREA AND POPULATION


Shanghai occupies an area of 6,341 sq.km. consisting of 16 districts and 4 counties, of which the city proper occupies an area of 2,642.6 sq.km. S hanghai has a permanent resident population of over 14.6 million, of which 9.48 million live in the urban areas. The average life span is 77 years.


CLIMATE

Shanghai has a sub-tropical monsoon climate, warm and humid, with an average annual temperature of 16°C. The annual precipitation is 1,100 mm. Shanghai has four distinct seasons; spring, synner, autumn and winter. The hottest month is July with an average temperature of 28 °C and the coldest month is January with an average temperature of 3°C. The climate is favorable for making tours all year round.


HISTORY

Shanghai has much influence on China's history for several hundred years. From textual research we have found that 5,000 years the shape of a plain in the Changjiang River Delta. Our ancestors had left their footprints here. During the Spring and Autumn Period, Shanghai belonged to the Wu State. During the Period of the W arring States, Shanghai first belonged to the Yue State and then to the Warring States, King Lie of the Chu State appointed Huang Xie as his prime minister and bestowed him the title of Lord Chunshen. Shanghai was part of his feoff. The other name of Shangha "Shen" was derived from this. Shanghai has another name "Hu", which came from "hu du". In ancient times, the fishermen in Shanghai invented a bamboo fishing device called "hu". {"Du" in Chinese means "creek".} This area was called "Hu Du" before it became known as Shanghai.The name "Shanghai" actually came into being during the Song Dynasty, when Shanghai was theb becoming a new rising trading port. There were then in Shanghai 18 creeks, one of which was called Shanghai Creek, a section of the Huangpu River from the Bund to Shiliupu. On its western bank was a Shanghai Town; the name "Shanghai" was derived from this. During the Yuan Dynasty, Shanghai Town had greatly developed and set up a shipping administration. Later on, the town was promoted to a county, which consisted of today's urban areas, Shanghai, Qingpu, Nanhui and Chuansha Counties. By the Ming Dynasty, Shanghai had already become China's largest textile center and business was developing fast. In the 24th year of Qing Emperor Kangxi's reign {1685}, the Qing governmint set up in Shanghai the customs. Shanghai gradually became China's major trading port and water transportation center for grains. It was then known as "A place accessible by sea and rivers; a capital in the southeast".

In 1843, after the Opiun War, Shanghai was forced to become an open port by the colonialists. In 1845, Britain first set up its concession in Shanghai. In 1845, Britain first set up its concession, then followed by France in 1849. In 1863, the British and American concessions amalgamated into the International Settlement. Shanghai was actually partitioned into the Chinese Section, the International Settlement and the French Concession. In the 100 years since 1943, Shanghai had become an important port for the foreign colonialists to dump their goods, ravaged raw materials and money. Shanghai was thus known as ˇ°A Paradise of the Adventurersˇ±.

On July 7, 1927, Shanghai was proclaimed as a special municipality. In 1945, after the victory of the Anti-Japanese War, the concessions were reclaimed. On May 27,1949, Shanghai was really liberated. Through the continual and long-term reform and construction by the successive municipal governments and the people, Shanghai has become an important industrial and commercial base in new China. In the 20 years of reform and opening to the outside world {1978-1998}, especially after Deng Xiaoping, the chief designer of our reform and opening policy, made his speech on his inspection tour of the south, Shanghai has been developing and changing with every passing day and has become China's center of economy, finance, science and technology, information and culture, an international modernized metropolis.


A BRIER INTRODUCTION TO THE CITY

Shanghai, situated in the watery regions in the south of the Changjiang River, is fertile in soil, crisscrossed by rivers and canals. Its main agricultural products are rice, cotton, wheat, edible oil crops and vegetables, with prosperous livestock and poultry breeding farms and abundant agricultural and non-staple produce.

Shanghai is the largest industrial base in China. As industry is the mainstay of the city's national economy, its industry, complete in systems, strong in its material and technical foundation, with highly qualified technicalprofessionals and famous brands, have attracted world attention. Today,Shanghai has become a comprehensive industrial city with 6 leading manufacturing industries of automobiles, electronic communication equipment. complete sets of power plants and large-scale electric and machinery equipment, petro-chemical and refined chemicals, iron and steel and household electrical appliances, acconmpanied by such traditional and newly developed industries as metallurgy, chemicals, machinery, ship building, electronics, meters and instruments, textile, light industry, new-type metals, pharmaceuticals, high polymer synthetics, computers, precisionary machine tools and space technology.

Shanghai is one of the largest commercial centers in the country. It is also an important hub for collecting and distributing goods in the Changjiang River Delta. Shanghai's financial business has a history of more than 200 years. In the '30s and '40s of the century, Shanghai was already China's largest financial center and an international financial center in the Far East. Shanghai's financial market is developing, gathering the domestic and oversea banking, stock and insurance business talents to paint a brilliant picture. Shanghai's foreign trade has a long history, it is complete in all branches, with specialized import and export companies dealing in all kinds of commodities; there are industrial and trade combined import and export companies and factories directly dealing in import and export, together with a complete system for the service of foreign trade in oversea transportation, storage, packing, advertisement and insurance.

Shanghai is one of China's centers of science, technology and culture. There are now 40 general institutions of higher learning with a student and graduate student body of a hundred thousand. There are over 1,000 research and development institutions with a million technical professionals, among whom 500,000 are professionals in natural sciences.Shanghai's science and technical undertakings are developing fast and have achieved and developed many new techniques and results and scientific exchanges are very active. Shanghai's cultural, press, publishing, broadcasting and TV businesses are well developed.
Shanghai is the hub of our country's water, Iand and air transportation. Shanghai Port is one of the leading ports in the world . Domestic shipping is also well developed. International shipping can reach 400 ports in 160 countries and regions in the world. There are two trunk railway lines - the Beijing-Shanghai and Shanghai-Hangzhou lines - linking all the trunk lines in the country. Shanghai Railway Station dispatches every day 80 pairs of trains to different parts of the country. The Shanghai-Nanjing and Shanghai-Hangzhou freeways have already opened to traffic, rendering more convenience and accessibility among the areas in the Changjiang Delta. The builking of Shanghai-Beijing express railway is underway. Shanghai International Airport dispatches planes on more than 300 air routes from Shanghai and the annual civil air transport volume is 13,000,000 preson/times. Shanghai's largest airport underway, the Pudong International Airport, will open to traffic in 1999. After the completion of the first phase of the project the passenger volume will be 20,000,000 person/times and cargo freight, 750,000 tons. The project will greatly facilitate the entry and exit of domestic and foreign travelers.

Shanghai is one of the principal hubs of international and domestic postal, telecommunication. It is equipped with up-to-date international programmed exchange system with IDD and DDD automatic telephone lines. There is also an advanced mobile telephone communication system and international internet to meet the needs of domestic and overseas customers in exchanging information.

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